well, hillman, when youre in your pine box... tap twice if youre going to heaven and none if youre dead and in a box six feet under.
ill be waiting for your response!
Thanks Britney! I'm glad you desire to know more. I know you appreciate scripture so here you go;
Matthew 7:6 “Do not give dogs what is sacred; do not throw your pearls to pigs. If you do, they may trample them under their feet, and then turn and tear you to pieces.
Luke 16:15 And He said to them, “You are those who justify yourselves before men, but God knows your hearts. For what is highly esteemed among men is an abomination in the sight of God.
Matthew 13:45-46 “Again the kingdom of heaven is like a merchant seeking fine pearls, and upon finding one pearl of great value, he went and sold all that he had and bought it” .
? There is one great possession in this life and it is a relationship with God. One truth and one great reality does exist, to which nothing else can compare (Philippians 3:7-8).
? This relationship with God never goes on sale. No matter who you are or what stage of life you find yourself in, being right with God will always demand a total commitment (Luke 14:26).
? Compared to the kingdom of God, everything else, even things of value or all lesser pearls, come in a distant second.
? This man does not argue with the price set on this one unique and exceptional pearl. He was willing to pay the full price that just happened to be everything he had.
? This man does not resent the cost and neither does he haggle.
? The kingdom of heaven is composed of people who realize that they can actually live without all lesser prizes, but that they cannot live without being right with God. The true believer does not settle for second best.
? It is not enough to simply admire this pearl from a distance or stop in and look at it now and then.
? Serving God is the most beautiful and priceless thing in the world. “Let us remember what the Kingdom is. To be in the Kingdom is to accept and to do the will of God. That is to say, to do the will of God is no grim, gray, agonizing thing; it is a lovely thing”
A nobody telling everybody about Somebody.
hawkings is a dumb ass...........he is famous only because he is in a wheel chair.
otherwise he would just be another LOSER, who had parents that were siblings or something......or whatever made him a frigging reject by mother nature.
tie a rock to his ankle and toss him in the ocean........feed the fishies.
Easily the silliest post I've seen here.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stephen Hawking at NASA, 1980s
Born Stephen William Hawking
8 January 1942 (age 69)
Fields Applied mathematics
Institutions University of Cambridge
California Institute of Technology
Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics
Alma mater University of Oxford
University of Cambridge
Doctoral advisor Dennis Sciama
Other academic advisors Robert Berman
Doctoral students Bruce Allen
Known for Black holes
Influences Dikran Tahta
Notable awards Wolf Prize (1988)
Prince of Asturias Award (1989)
Copley Medal (2006)
Presidential Medal of Freedom (2009)
Jane Hawking (1965-1991)
Elaine Mason (1995-2006)
Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, whose scientific books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and in 2009 was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States.
Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge for 30 years, taking up the post in 1979 and retiring on 1 October 2009. He is now Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge. He is also a Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and a Distinguished Research Chair at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. He is known for his contributions to the fields of cosmology and quantum gravity, especially in the context of black holes. He has also achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; these include the runaway best seller A Brief History of Time, which stayed on the British Sunday Times bestsellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.
Hawking's key scientific works to date have included providing, with Roger Penrose, theorems regarding gravitational singularities in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes should emit radiation, which is today known as Hawking radiation (or sometimes as Bekenstein?Hawking radiation).
Hawking has a motor neurone disease that is related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a condition that has progressed over the years and has left him almost completely paralysed.
Once at University College, Hawking specialised in physics. His interests during this time were in thermodynamics, relativity, and quantum mechanics. His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later said in The New York Times Magazine:
It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it. [...] He didn't have very many books, and he didn't take notes. Of course, his mind was completely different from all of his contemporaries.
Hawking was passing, but his unimpressive study habits resulted in a final examination score on the borderline between first and second class honours, making an "oral examination" necessary. Berman said of the oral examination:
And of course the examiners then were intelligent enough to realize they were talking to someone far more clever than most of themselves.
After receiving his B.A. degree at Oxford in 1962, he stayed to study astronomy. He decided to leave when he found that studying sunspots, which was all the observatory was equipped for, did not appeal to him and that he was more interested in theory than in observation. He left Oxford for Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he engaged in the study of theoretical astronomy and cosmology.
Career in theoretical physics
Almost as soon as he arrived at Cambridge, he started developing symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, known colloquially in the United States as Lou Gehrig's disease), a type of motor neurone disease which would cost him almost all neuromuscular control. During his first two years at Cambridge, he did not distinguish himself, but, after the disease had stabilised and with the help of his doctoral tutor, Dennis William Sciama, he returned to working on his Ph.D.
Hawking was elected as one of the youngest Fellows of the Royal Society in 1974, was created a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1982, and became a Companion of Honour in 1989. Hawking is a member of the Board of Sponsors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
In 1974, he accepted the Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to work with his friend, Kip Thorne, who was a faculty member there. He continues to have ties with Caltech, spending a month each year there since 1992.
Hawking's achievements were made despite the increasing paralysis caused by the ALS. By 1974, he was unable to feed himself or get out of bed. His speech became slurred so that he could be understood only by people who knew him well. In 1985, he caught pneumonia and had to have a tracheotomy, which made him unable to speak at all. A Cambridge scientist built a device that enables Hawking to write onto a computer with small movements of his body, and then have a voice synthesizer speak what he has typed.
Hawking in Cambridge
Hawking's principal fields of research are theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity.
In the late 1960s, he and his Cambridge friend and colleague, Roger Penrose, applied a new, complex mathematical model they had created from Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity. This led, in 1970, to Hawking proving the first of many singularity theorems; such theorems provide a set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a gravitational singularity in space-time. This work showed that, far from being mathematical curiosities which appear only in special cases, singularities are a fairly generic feature of general relativity.
He supplied a mathematical proof, along with Brandon Carter, Werner Israel and D. Robinson, of John Wheeler's no-hair theorem ? namely, that any black hole is fully described by the three properties of mass, angular momentum, and electric charge.
Hawking also suggested upon analysis of gamma ray emissions that after the Big Bang, primordial mini black holes were formed. With Bardeen and Carter, he proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics, drawing an analogy with thermodynamics. In 1974, he calculated that black holes should thermally create and emit subatomic particles, known today as Bekenstein-Hawking radiation, until they exhaust their energy and evaporate.
In collaboration with Jim Hartle, Hawking developed a model in which the universe had no boundary in space-time, replacing the initial singularity of the classical Big Bang models with a region akin to the North Pole: one cannot travel north of the North Pole, as there is no boundary. While originally the no-boundary proposal predicted a closed universe, discussions with Neil Turok led to the realisation that the no-boundary proposal is also consistent with a universe which is not closed.
Along with Thomas Hertog at CERN, in 2006 Hawking proposed a theory of "top-down cosmology," which says that the universe had no unique initial state, and therefore it is inappropriate for physicists to attempt to formulate a theory that predicts the universe's current configuration from one particular initial state. Top-down cosmology posits that in some sense, the present "selects" the past from a superposition of many possible histories. In doing so, the theory suggests a possible resolution of the fine-tuning question: It is inevitable that we find our universe's present physical constants, as the current universe "selects" only those past histories that led to the present conditions. In this way, top-down cosmology provides an anthropic explanation for why we find ourselves in a universe that allows matter and life, without invoking an ensemble of multiple universes.
Hawking's many other scientific investigations have included the study of quantum cosmology, cosmic inflation, helium production in anisotropic Big Bang universes, large N cosmology, the density matrix of the universe, topology and structure of the universe, baby universes, Yang-Mills instantons and the S matrix, anti de Sitter space, quantum entanglement and entropy, the nature of space and time, including the arrow of time, spacetime foam, string theory, supergravity, Euclidean quantum gravity, the gravitational Hamiltonian, Brans-Dicke and Hoyle-Narlikar theories of gravitation, gravitational radiation, and wormholes.
At a George Washington University lecture in honour of NASA's fiftieth anniversary, Hawking theorised on the existence of extraterrestrial life, believing that "primitive life is very common and intelligent life is fairly rare."
It's an open minded awareness that gets Danish cartoonists murdered for questioning the peace loving nature of religions.
I'll believe corporations are persons when Texas executes one.: LBJ's Ghost
So he has a degree, big deal.
I still think he is a whiney little ****head that would have been better to have him mama swllow the day he was conceived.
If i had met him i would have spit in his face and told him exactly what i thought of his pathetic existance.
Are you serious? what's wrong with you?
he has far more then a degree and is one of the top respected physicists in his field, are you a top person in your field? does everyone and anyone in the scientific field know your name? have you any accomplishments to even begin to compare to his?
I am trying not to be rude but I can't believe someone could post something so incredibly foul and ignorant about someone who has done so much despite being in a horrible position, it's really sad that you could be so incredibly shallow and have no humanity..... and sadly I bet you call yourself a christian although your post says you are most definitely not.
Last night I was watching the history of Egypt's pharaohs and their tombs. Ramses II was the guy to be related to so when Egypt divided into two kingdoms the guy without connections moved an entire city block by block to his kingdom in the Nile Delta.
When you died it was important to demonstrate you had the ear of certain gods during your rule and that you were linked to Ramses II. "With God on your side" was in vogue 6000 years ago.
Funny coincidence Blucher, I was watching the ANCIENT ALIENS series on Netflix! They deal with the subject of who built the pyramids and how, among other nother wordly ideas.
The first thing you should know is that the development of modern angels has been an evolutionary process. If you're searching through the Old Testament for an angel along the lines we know today (wings, halo, harp, Michael Landon look-alike), forget it. The concept of angels has changed considerably since ancient times.
Second, angels play very different roles in Christianity, Judaism and Islam.
And third, while angels appear in both the Old and New Testaments, most of the ancient detail we have about angels is NOT biblical, but instead comes from the apocrypha (books written before 100 BC that were rejected from inclusion in the Old Testament) and the pseudepigrapha (books written from 200 BC to 100 AD that were never considered for inclusion in the canonical Bible). For information on how books were included or excluded from the Bible, see the Staff Report "Who wrote the Bible? (Part V)" at www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mbib le5.html.
This topic is a vast one, and we can give only a brief (although still long) overview here.
ETYMOLOGY AND DEFINITION
The most common Hebrew word for angel is malakh, really meaning "messenger." The plural is malakhim. NOTE: The -im ending, which you will see a lot in this report, pluralizes, so one cherub, two cherubim.
The Arabic word for angel is malak, derived from the Hebrew.
The English word "angel" derives from the Sanskrit angiras through the Greek angelos ("messenger").
However, there were several other terms used in ancient Hebrew to refer to heavenly beings, such as cherubim, elohim ("gods") and bene elohim ("sons of God" or "sons of gods") or metaphors like "chariots of God."
What is an angel? In the earliest Biblical books, angels are merely servants or messengers, running errands for God, including jobs such as guardians, counselors, judges, warriors, matchmakers, gravediggers, and cooks. By the Middle Ages and after, angels are some sort of supernatural being, an intermediary between God and man. Angels are members of heavenly choirs, they sit around the throne of judgment, and they deliver messages of prophecy or doom. They fight battles and inspire hope. They do miracles and save Jimmy Stewart's Christmas.
What do angels look like? That's changed a lot over time. Since angels are (presumably) spiritual beings rather than material beings, they (also presumably) would not have physical bodies. However, the authors, prophets, and poets who first wrote about angels in biblical times did not know how to describe invisible spirits except in anthropomorphic terms--that is, they depicted the angels as human. For example, Abraham sees three men approaching (Genesis 18:2) who turn out to be angels bringing messages, and King Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 3:25) sees four men in the fiery furnace when he only threw in three, and Acts 1:10 mentions "two men in white who stood by" at Jesus'' tomb. So, the bible reports angels that can be easily mistaken for humans, usually males. Female angels (and demons), such as Lilith (see Staff Report at www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mlilith .html) were few and far between.
Note that these earliest angels do not have wings. In Genesis 28:12, Jacob dreams of a ladder reaching to the sky, and angels "going up and down on it"--they didn't fly. Halos and harps also came much later in the evolution of angels.
Other later, more poetic mentions of angels, for example in some of the books of Prophets, offer very different descriptions. Isaiah 6:2 describes angels with six wings, each pair having its own function--two to cover his face, two to cover his feet (read: genitals) and two to fly. Ezekiel has a vision of angels with six wings and multiple faces (1:6ff), and also of angels as fiery wheels, or thrones, with many eyes (1:15ff).
The variety of descriptions led scholars and theologians to conclude that there were several kinds of angels. After all, a huge creature with six wings and four faces would not be mistaken for a human by anyone, let alone Abraham. Hence, there must be different classes or species of angels, even fallen angels (devils and demons being merely classes of angel).
By the Middle Ages, the number of species and the ranks of angels were being hotly debated. Cecil wrote about this in "Did medieval scholars argue over how many angels could dance on the head of a pin?" at www.straightdope.com/classics/a4_13 2.html. Thomas Aquinas's lectures in 1259 set down everything known about angels, reasoning from scriptural and extra-scriptural sources. Aquinas concluded that angels were intellect, not matter, animals without bodies who can assume bodies at will, who eat and drink and appear among mankind. Aquinas also fixed the hierarchy of angels, and his pronouncements have prevailed in Christianity for three-quarters of a millennium. But more on this later.
A few decades later, around 1320, the Italian poet Dante Alighieri followed the hierarchy set forth by Aquinas in the Divine Comedy, with definitive rankings and poetic descriptions of all the heavenly creatures, both good and evil. Dante mostly wrote of angels as transcendent beings of light and song.
By the Renaissance, Martin Luther (1463-1546) referred to angels as "guides." However, Protestants generally didn't pay much attention to angels. John Calvin (1509-1564) called writings about the angelic hierarchy "the vain babblings of idle men" and deplored such speculations as fruitless and unprofitable. (Ha!)
In 1664, the English poet John Milton wrote Paradise Lost. He ignored Aquinas's angelic order and orthodox tradition--he was English, after all. Milton's angels were basically non-corporeal humans, who ate and drank and had sex (yep, sex!).
Today angels are part of the tradition of at least four world religions--Zoroastrians, Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
Early Church theologians in the third and fourth centuries, like Eusebius and Theodoret, condemned the worship of angels. A Church council at Laodicea (343 BC) condemned angel-worship as idolatrous. But only a few decades later, St Ambrose suggested it was OK for Christians to "pray to the angels, who are given to us as guardians." You can't fight the grassroots. At the Second Council of Nicaea (787 AD), the Church reversed itself and the limited worship of angelic beings was formally approved.
There were many different ideas of how the hierarchy worked. St. Ambrose (340?-397 AD) and St. Jerome (340?-390 AD) each set forth angelic hierarchies. The critical work, however, was written in the 5th century and attributed to Dionysius the Areopagite. It was a forgery. Dionysius the Areopagite was a first century Greek, converted by St. Paul in Athens (Acts 17:34). So, our mystic writer is called pseudo-Dionysius to avoid confusion..
One of the four mystic books by the pseudo-Dionysius was about the nature of angels, and provided what has become the orthodox Christian ordering of angels. Pseudo-Dionysius described nine orders in the celestial hierarchy, thus three choruses of three orders each (very neat, and note the use of the magic number three, thrice.)
Other "authoritative" lists gave seven, nine, or twelve orders, including some fairly obscure species (ardors, sancitites, regents, apparitions, acclamations, gonfalons, warriors, etc.) and shuffled the order. The question of which angel goes in what order, and who heads which order, and similar questions were hotly disputed among the different authorities.
By the mid-1200s, Thomas Aquinas thought angelic hierarchies were important enough and confusing enough to be straightened out and included in his Summa Theologica. Aquinas accepted the order of the pseudo-Dionysius, and that has pretty much been official Catholic dogma ever since.
And so the official list for Christians is:
Dominations (sometimes translated as dominions)
If you're curious, St. Ambrose had a reverse order for thrones and dominations, and put principalities, then powers, then virtues respectively in the 5th, 6th, and 7th slots. St. Jerome had only seven orders, with powers, dominations, and thrones respectively in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th places, and dropping principalities and virtues.
Naturally, Jewish thinkers had a different hierarchy. There were basically two, one proposed by Moses Maimonides (1135 1204), one of the great rationalist religious thinkers; and the other in the Zohar, the great work of Jewish mysticism, published around 1275 although with much earlier roots.
I'll believe corporations are persons when Texas executes one.: LBJ's Ghost