1284 ? The Republic of Pisa is defeated in the Battle of Meloria by the Republic of Genoa, thus losing its naval dominance in the Mediterranean.
1506 ? The Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Crimean Khanate in the Battle of Kletsk
1538 ? Bogot?, Colombia, is founded by Gonzalo Jim?nez de Quesada.
1661 ? The Treaty of The Hague is signed by Portugal and the Dutch Republic.
1787 ? Sixty proof sheets of the Constitution of the United States are delivered to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
1806 ? Francis II, the last Holy Roman Emperor, abdicates ending the Holy Roman Empire.
1819 ? Norwich University is founded in Vermont as the first private military school in the United States.
1825 ? Bolivia gains independence from Spain.
1845 ? The Russian Geographical Society is founded in Saint Petersburg.
1861 ? The United Kingdom annexes Lagos, Nigeria.
1862 ? American Civil War: the Confederate ironclad CSS Arkansas is scuttled on the Mississippi River after suffering damage in a battle with USS Essex near Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
1870 ? Franco-Prussian War: the Battle of W?rth results in a decisive Prussian victory.
1890 ? At Auburn Prison in New York, murderer William Kemmler becomes the first person to be executed by electric chair.
1901 ? Kiowa land in Oklahoma is opened for white settlement, effectively dissolving the contiguous reservation.
1912 ? The Bull Moose Party meets at the Chicago Coliseum.
1914 ? World War I: First Battle of the Atlantic ? two days after the United Kingdom had declared war on Germany over the German invasion of Belgium, ten German U-boats leave their base in Helgoland to attack Royal Navy warships in the North Sea.
1914 ? World War I: Serbia declares war on Germany; Austria declares war on Russia.
1915 ? World War I: Battle of Sari Bair ? the Allies mount a diversionary attack timed to coincide with a major Allied landing of reinforcements at Suvla Bay.
1917 ? World War I: Battle of Mărăşeşti between the Romanian and German armies begins.
1926 ? Gertrude Ederle becomes the first woman to swim across the English Channel.
1926 ? In New York City, the Warner Brothers' Vitaphone system premieres with the movie Don Juan starring John Barrymore.
1926 ? Harry Houdini performs his greatest feat, spending 91 minutes underwater in a sealed tank before escaping.
1930 ? Judge Joseph Force Crater steps into a taxi in New York and disappears to be never seen again.
1940 ? Estonia was illegaly annexed by the Soviet Union.
1942 ? Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands becomes the first reigning queen to address a joint session of the United States Congress.
1945 ? World War II: Hiroshima is devastated when the atomic bomb "Little Boy" is dropped by the United States B-29 Enola Gay. Around 70,000 people are killed instantly, and some tens of thousands die in subsequent years from burns and radiation poisoning.
1956 ? After going bankrupt in 1955, the American broadcaster DuMont Television Network makes its final broadcast, a boxing match from St. Nicholas Arena in New York in the Boxing from St. Nicholas Arena series.
1960 ? Cuban Revolution: in response to a United States embargo, Cuba nationalizes American and foreign-owned property in the nation.
1962 ? Jamaica becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
1964 ? Prometheus, a bristlecone pine and the world's oldest tree, is cut down.
1965 ? US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law.
1966 ? Braniff Airlines Flight 250 crashes in Falls City, NE killing all 42 on board.
1976 ? Zulfikar Ali Bhutto lays the foundation stone of Port Qasim, Karachi.
1986 ? A low-pressure system that redeveloped off the New South Wales coast dumps a record 328 millimeters (13 inches) of rain in a day on Sydney.
1988 ? The Tompkins Square Park Police Riot in New York City spurs a reform of the NYPD, held responsible for the event.
1990 ? Gulf War: the United Nations Security Council orders a global trade embargo against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.
1991 ? Tim Berners-Lee releases files describing his idea for the World Wide Web. WWW debuts as a publicly available service on the Internet.
1991 ? Doi Takako, chair of the Social Democratic Party, becomes Japan's first female speaker of the House of Representatives.
1993 ? Heavy rains and debris kill 72 in the Kagoshima and Aira areas of Kyūshū, Japan.
1996 ? NASA announces that the ALH 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, contains evidence of primitive life-forms.
1997 ? Korean Air Flight 801, a Boeing 747-300, crashes into the jungle on Guam on approach to airport, killing 228.
2008 ? A military junta led by Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz stages a coup d'?tat in Mauritania, overthrowing president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi.
2010 ? The incoming coalition government of the United Kingdom discontinues the use of the controversial ContactPoint database of children.
1180 ? Emperor Go-Toba of Japan (d. 1239)
1504 ? Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1575)
1609 ? Richard Bennett, British Colonial Governor of Virginia (d. 1675)
1619 ? Barbara Strozzi (baptized), Italian singer and composer (d. 1677)
1638 ? Nicolas Malebranche, French philosopher (d. 1715)
1644 ? Louise de la Valli?re, French mistress of Louis XIV of France (d. 1710)
1656 ? Claude de Forbin, French naval commander (d. 1733)
1666 ? Maria Sofia of Neuburg, German-born consort of Peter II of Portugal (d. 1699)
1697 ? Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1745)
1715 ? Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues, French writer (d. 1747)
1765 ? Petros Mavromichalis, Greek leader in the Greek War of Independence and Prime Minister of Greece (d. 1848)
1766 ? William Hyde Wollaston, English chemist (d. 1828)
1768 ? Jean-Baptiste Bessi?res, French marshal (d. 1813)
1775 ? Daniel O'Connell, Irish politician (d. 1847)
1809 ? Alfred Lord Tennyson, English poet (d. 1892)
1826 ? Thomas Alexander Browne, Australian writer (d. 1915)
1844 ? Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (d. 1900)
1844 ? James Henry Greathead, British engineer (d. 1896)
1861 ? Edith Roosevelt, American First Lady of the United States (d. 1948)
1866 ? Matthew Henson, American Arctic explorer (d. 1955)
1868 ? Paul Claudel, French poet (d. 1955)
1874 ? Charles Fort, American writer and researcher (d. 1932)
1877 ? Wallace H. White, Jr., American politician (d. 1952)
1880 ? Hans Moser, Austrian actor (d. 1964)
1881 ? Leo Carrillo, American actor (d. 1961)
1881 ? Sir Alexander Fleming, Scottish scientist, Nobel laureate (d. 1955)
1881 ? Louella Parsons, American gossip columnist (d. 1972)
1882 ? Ernst Eklund, Swedish actor (d. 1971)
1883 ? Scott Nearing, American writer and educator (d. 1983)
1886 ? Edward Ballantine, American composer (d. 1971)
1887 ? Dudley Benjafield, British racing driver (d. 1957)
1888 ? Heinrich Schlusnus, German baritone (d. 1952)
1889 ? George Kenney, American Air Force General (d. 1977)
1889 ? John Middleton Murry, English poet (d. 1957)
1891 ? William Slim, British general (d. 1970)
1892 ? Hoot Gibson, American actor (d. 1962)
1893 ? Wright Patman, American politician (d. 1976)
1895 ? Ernesto Lecuona, Cuban pianist and composer (d. 1963)
1900 ? Cecil H. Green, American geophysicist (d. 2003)
1902 ? Dutch Schultz, American organized crime figure (d. 1935)
1904 ? Jean Desses, Greek-Egyptian fashion designer (d. 1970)
1904 ? Henry Iba, American basketball coach (d. 1993)
1906 ? Vic Dickenson, American trombonist (d. 1984)
1908 ? Helen Jacobs, American tennis player (d. 1997)
1908 ? Will Lee, American actor (d. 1982)
1910 ? Charles Crichton, British film director (d. 1999)
1911 ? Lucille Ball, American actress (d. 1989)
1911 ? Norman Gordon, South African cricketer
1911 ? Constance Fecher Heaven, British romance writer (d. 1995)
1912 ? Richard C. Miller, American photographer (d. 2010)
1916 ? Richard Hofstadter, American historian (d. 1970)
1916 ? Dom Mintoff, Maltese politician
1917 ? Robert Mitchum, American actor (d. 1997)
1918 ? Norman Granz, American record producer (d. 2001)
1920 ? Ella Raines, American actress (d. 1988)
1922 ? Sir Freddie Laker, English entrepreneur (d. 2006)
1923 ? Jess Collins, American artist (d. 2004)
1924 ? Samuel Bowers, American murder and Ku Klux Klan leader (d. 2006)
1925 ? Barbara Bates, American actress (d. 1969)
1926 ? Elisabeth Beresford, British author and creator of The Wombles (d. 2010)
1926 ? Frank Finlay, British actor
1926 ? Clem Labine, American baseball player (d. 2007)
1926 ? Norman Wexler, American screenwriter (d. 1999)
1928 ? Herb Moford, American baseball player (d. 2005)
I'll believe corporations are persons when Texas executes one.: LBJ's Ghost