Re: Sir Lawrence Washington, Esq.
Historical Timeline of Concrete
A form of concrete dating to 6500 B.C. was discovered by archaeologists in Syria. The Image is “One of the dead towns in northern Syria.”
The earliest concrete yet discovered in Europe was developed along the Danube River in Yugoslavia. Stone age hunters or fishermen mixed red lime, sand, gravel and water.
Stonehenge builders mixed Welsh pulverized Bluestone volcanic ash and tuff (Pozzolan) together with crushed in situ Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) lime.
Chinese used cementitious materials to hold bamboo together in their boats and in the Great Wall. The Chinese used concrete in Gansu Province in northwest China.
Egyptians mixed mud with straw to bind dried bricks. Also furthered the discovery of lime and gypsum mortar as a binding agent for building the Pyramids.
Babylonians and Assyrians used a bitumen to bind stone and bricks. This allowed them to combine both large and small stone objects together.
Greeks discovered a natural Pozzolan on Santorini Island that developed hydraulic properties when mixed with lime. This made it possible to produce concrete that would harden under water, as well as in the air.”
Altar of Burnt Offering containing 7 gold artifacts filled with a Slurry of pulverized Bluestone (volcanic ash and tuff) aggregate and lime 4 ft (1.2m) below Heelstone, Stonehenge.
Petra (Greek, “city of rock”), also known as Sila, ancient city of Arabia (now southwestern Jordan). The stronghold and treasure city of the Nabataeans, an Arab people.
Romans used slaked lime and volcanic ash (Pozzolan), found near Pozzouli, Italy by the bay of Naples. Pliny the Elder reported a mortar mixture of 1 part lime to 4 parts sand. Vitruvius reported 2 parts of Pozzolan to 1 part lime.
Porticus Aemilia made of bound stones to form concrete.
Romans use a pozzolanic, hydraulic cement to build the theater at Pompeii and the Roman baths. The cement was a ground mix of lime and a volcanic ash containing silica and alumina.
Palatine Hill (Latin: Palatium), the centermost of the 7 hills of Rome, one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome, Italy. It is some 70 meters high.
Ancient harbor at Caesarea, Israel built by Herod the Great.
"British archaeologists could not find My ark of My testimony if they tripped over it." G-D