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Old 03-15-2011, 04:44 PM  
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Very interesting, very sad.
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Old 03-15-2011, 05:04 PM  
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Chernobyl

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An explosion at the core of a nuclear reactor at Chernobyl nuclear power plant in April 1986 released more than 50 tons of radioactive material into the air above the Ukraine. According to Ukranian officials, 4,000 people died and 70,000 were disabled by radiation-related illness.
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The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian SSR (now Ukraine). It is considered the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, and it is the only one classified as a level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
The disaster began during a systems test on 26 April 1986 at reactor number four of the Chernobyl plant, which is near the town of Pripyat. There was a sudden power output surge, and when an emergency shutdown was attempted, a more extreme spike in power output occurred, which led to a reactor vessel rupture and a series of explosions. This event exposed the graphite moderator components of the reactor to air, causing them to ignite. The resulting fire sent a plume of radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, including Pripyat. The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Northern Europe. Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia had to be evacuated, and over 336,000 people were resettled. According to official post-Soviet data,[1][2] about 60% of the fallout landed in Belarus.
The accident raised concerns about the safety of the Soviet nuclear power industry, as well as nuclear power in general, slowing its expansion for a number of years and forcing the Soviet government to become less secretive about its procedures.[3][notes 1]
Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and substantial decontamination and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident. Fifty deaths, all among the reactor staff and emergency workers, are directly attributed to the accident. Estimates of the total number of deaths attributable to the accident vary enormously. Despite the accident, Ukraine continued to operate the remaining reactors at Chernobyl for many years. The last reactor at the site was closed down in 2000, 14 years after the accident.[4]
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Old 03-15-2011, 05:27 PM  
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Bhopal disaster

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Bhopal disaster
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Bhopal memorial for those killed and disabled by the 1984 toxic gas release
The Bhopal disaster was the world's worst industrial catastrophe. It occurred on the night of December 2?3, 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.[1] Other government agencies estimate 15,000 deaths.[2] Others estimate that 3,000 died within weeks and that another 8,000 have since died from gas-related diseases.[3][4] A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries.[5]
UCIL was the Indian subsidiary of Union Carbide Corporation (UCC). Indian Government controlled banks and the Indian public held 49.1 percent ownership share. In 1994, the Supreme Court of India allowed UCC to sell its 50.9 percent share. The Bhopal plant was sold to McLeod Russel (India) Ltd. UCC was purchased by Dow Chemical Company in 2001.
Civil and criminal cases are pending in the United States District Court, Manhattan and the District Court of Bhopal, India, involving UCC, UCIL employees, and Warren Anderson, UCC CEO at the time of the disaster.[6][7] In June 2010, seven ex-employees, including the former UCIL chairman, were convicted in Bhopal of causing death by negligence and sentenced to two years imprisonment and a fine of about $2,000 each, the maximum punishment allowed by law. An eighth former employee was also convicted but died before judgment was passed.[8]
On 28th Feb 2011 the Supreme Court of India issued notice to the Union Carbide Corporation, Dow Chemicals and others on the Centre?s extra-ordinary petition seeking an additional compensation of Rs7,844 crore for the victims of 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy. Through its curative petition, the Central Government has requested Supreme Court to take a re-look at the entire evidence and enhance the compensation amount. The bench also decided to hear CBI's curative petition asking the court to restore the stringent charges of culpable homicide not amounting to murder against the accused in the criminal case.[9]
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Old 03-15-2011, 05:49 PM  
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Seveso

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In July of 1976, an explosion at a chemical manufacturing plant north of Milan in Italy released TCDD, a dioxin, into the atmosphere. The nearby town of Seveso was most affected. Within days 3,300 animals died and many more were slaughtered to prevent the spread of disease into the food chain. Children were hospitalized with skin inflamation and nearly 500 people were found to have skin lesions.
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The chemical release

Around midday on Saturday 10 July 1976, an explosion occurred in a TCP (2,4,5-trichlorophenol) reactor of the ICMESA chemical plant on the outskirts of Meda, a small town about 20 kilometres north of Milan, Italy.1 A toxic cloud containing TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), then widely believed to be one of the most toxic man-made chemicals (Mocarelli et al. 1991), was accidentally released into the atmosphere. The dioxin cloud contaminated a densely populated area about six kilometres long and one kilometre wide, lying downwind from the site (fig. 4.1). This event became internationally known as the Seveso disaster, after the name of a neighbouring municipality that was most severely affected (Hay 1982; Pocchiari, Silano, and Zapponi 1987).
Eleven communities in the rolling countryside between Milan and Lake Como were directly involved in the toxic release and its aftermath. The four most impacted municipalities included Seveso (1976 population 17,000), Meda (19,000), Desio (33,000), and Cesano Maderno (34,000). Two other municipalities were subject to postaccident restrictions: Barlassina (6,000) and Bovisio Masciago (11,000). Health monitoring was extended to a further five municipalities. The entire affected area is part of the Brianza, a prosperous district of Lombardy, itself one of the wealthiest and most industrialized regions of Italy (fig. 4.2). Though originally agricultural, the economy of this area depended on a cluster of small workshops and industries, mainly engaged in manufacturing furniture.

The Seveso disaster had a particularly traumatic effect on exposed local populations because its seriousness was recognized only gradually. The community was divided by rancorous conflicts. People in other countries also experienced much heightened concern about industrial risks and the need for tighter regulation of hazardous chemical installations. In these respects Seveso resembled Bhopal (1984) and Chernobyl (1986), which have both come to be regarded as international symbols of industrial pathology.
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Old 03-15-2011, 06:38 PM  
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Times Beach Missouri Dioxin Contamination

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Dioxin contamination

Plagued with a dust problem in the early 1970s due to its 23 miles (37 km) of dirt roads and lack of pavement funds, the city of Times Beach hired waste hauler Russell Bliss to oil the roads in and around the town in 1971.[2] From 1972 to 1976, Bliss sprayed waste oil on the roads at a cost of six cents per gallon used.
The problem began when Bliss had taken a contract with a local company called ICP to dispose of toxic waste.[2] ICP was being paid $3,000 per load to haul away toxic waste from Northeastern Pharmaceutical and Chemical Company (NEPACCO), and ICP would turn around and pay Bliss $125 to take it off their hands.[2] NEPACCO operated a facility producing hexachlorophene in Verona, Missouri. Some parts of the facility had been used for the production of Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, and the waste clay and water contained levels of dioxin some 2,000 times higher than the dioxin content in Agent Orange.[2] Bliss claimed he was unaware that the waste contained dioxin, he even sprayed it around his own home.[2]
Bliss had first used the technique of spraying waste oil to control dust in horse stables after discovering it worked well at his own home.[2] When a March 1971 spraying resulted in the death of 62 horses, the owners of the stable suspected Bliss, who assured them it was just used engine oil.[2] But Bliss had mixed the NEPACCO waste with waste oil.[2] The owners followed Bliss's activities, and after other stables experienced similar problems, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began investigating, and, in late 1979, a NEPACCO employee confessed the company's practice of disposing of dioxin.[2] The government sued NEPACCO in 1980.
The EPA visited Times Beach in mid-1982, and, in November 1982, stories began to appear in the press about the discovery of dioxin in Times Beach. Another soil sample was taken December 3, 1982, and the test result showed dioxin levels some 100 times higher than the one part per billion generally considered to be hazardous to humans.[2]
On December 5, 1982, the Meramec River flooded, causing an evacuation as more than 95% of the city was covered with 10 feet (3.0 m) or more of water.[2] Flood stage was 18.5 feet (5.6 m) and the water crested at 42.88 feet (13.07 m).
On December 23, 1982, the EPA announced it had identified dangerous levels of dioxin in Times Beach's soil. Panic spread through the town, with many illnesses, miscarriages, and animal deaths attributed to the dioxin.[2] President Ronald Reagan formed a dioxin task force. At the time, dioxin was hailed as "the most toxic chemical synthesized by man," based on its extreme toxicity in guinea pigs.
On February 23, 1983, the EPA announced the town's buyout for $32 million.[2] Later, PCBs were also found in Times Beach soil. By 1985, the town was evacuated except for one elderly couple who refused to leave, and the site was quarantined. Residents were shunned in their new communities by people who feared the effects of exposure to dioxin were contagious. Many of the town's citizens sued Bliss, NEPACCO, and its various subcontractors. Although the ethics and legality of Bliss' practices have been questioned, Bliss was never convicted for spraying dioxin.[2] He was convicted of tax fraud and served one year in jail.[2]
About 265,000 tons of contaminated soil and debris from Times Beach and 28 other sites in eastern Missouri was incinerated from March 1996 to June 1997 in an incinerator built and operated on the former site of the town by Syntex, the parent company of NEPACCO.[2] The cleanup cost the government a total of $110 million, $10 million of which was reimbursed by Syntex. After the cleanup, the incinerator was dismantled and the site was turned over to the State of Missouri.[2]
Subsequent research on the effects of dioxin on humans and other mammals has led some experts to question whether the evacuation of the town was necessary, sometimes citing the example of Seveso, Italy, the site of a disaster in 1976 that exposed residents to larger levels of dioxin than those of Times Beach and whose subsequent cleanup allowed the city to continue to exist.
Today, the land that was once Times Beach is now Route 66 State Park. One building from the town still exists: the park's visitor center was once a roadhouse from Times Beach's glory days, and was the EPA's headquarters for the area. There is a large grass mound beneath which is the debris of the demolished buildings of the former town.[2]
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Old 03-15-2011, 06:56 PM  
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The Palomares Incident

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
1966 Palomares B-52 crash

The B28RI nuclear bomb, recovered from 2,850 feet (869 m) of water, on the deck of the USS Petrel.
Accident summary
Date January 17, 1966
Type Mid-air collision
Site Mediterranean Sea near Palomares, Almer?a
37?14′57″N 1?47′49″WCoordinates: 37?14′57″N 1?47′49″W
Total fatalities 7
First aircraft
Type B-52G
Operator Strategic Air Command, United States Air Force
Tail number 58-0256
Flight origin Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina
Destination Seymour Johnson Air Force Base, North Carolina
Crew 7
Fatalities 3
Survivors 4
Second aircraft
Type KC-135 Stratotanker
Operator United States Air Force
Tail number 61-0273
Flight origin Mor?n Air Base
Destination Mor?n Air Base
Crew 4
Fatalities 4
Survivors 0
The 1966 Palomares B-52 crash or Palomares incident occurred on January 17, 1966, when a B-52G bomber of the USAF Strategic Air Command collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air refuelling at 31,000 feet (9,450 m) over the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of Spain. The KC-135 was completely destroyed when its fuel load ignited, killing all four crew members. The B-52G broke apart, killing three of the seven crew members aboard.[1]
Of the four Mk28 type hydrogen bombs the B-52G carried,[2] three were found on land near the small fishing village of Palomares in the municipality of Cuevas del Almanzora, Almer?a, Spain. The non-nuclear explosives in two of the weapons detonated upon impacting the ground, resulting in the contamination of a 2-square-kilometer (490-acre) (0.78 square mile) area by radioactive plutonium. The fourth, which fell into the Mediterranean Sea, was recovered intact after a 2?-month-long search.[3]

he recovery operation was led by Supervisor of Salvage, Capt Searle.[10] Hoist, Petrel and Tringa brought 150 qualified divers who searched to 120 feet with compressed air, to 210 feet with mixed gas, and to 350 feet (110 m) with hard-hat rigs;[15] but the bomb lay in an uncharted area of the Rio Almanzora canyon on a 70-degree slope at a depth of 2,550 feet (780 m).[15] After a search that continued for 80 days following the crash, the bomb was located by the DSV Alvin on March 17, but was lost when the Navy attempted to bring it to the surface.[16]


The recovered hydrogen bomb displayed on the fantail of the submarine rescue ship USS Petrel (ASR-14) after it was located at a depth of 2,500 feet (760 m)
Alvin relocated the fourth bomb on 2 April, this time at a depth of 2,900 feet (880 m). .[9] On 7 April, an unmanned torpedo recovery vehicle, CURV, became entangled in the weapon's parachute while attempting to attach a line to it. A decision was made to raise CURV and the weapon together to a depth of 100 feet (30 m), where divers attached cables to them. The bomb was brought to the surface by USS Petrel (ASR-14). The USS Cascade (AD-16) was diverted from its Naples destination and stayed on scene until recovery and took the bomb back to America.[citation needed]
Once the bomb was located, Sim? Orts appeared at the First District Federal Court in New York City with his lawyer, Herbert Brownell, formerly Attorney General of the United States under President Dwight D. Eisenhower, claiming salvage rights on the recovered hydrogen bomb. According to Craven:[17]
"It is customary maritime law that the person who identifies the location of a ship to be salved has the right to a salvage award if that identification leads to a successful recovery. The amount is nominal, usually 1 or 2 percent, sometimes a bit more, of the intrinsic value to the owner of the thing salved. But the thing salved off Palomares was a hydrogen bomb, the same bomb valued by no less an authority than the Secretary of Defense at $2 billion?each percent of which is, of course, $20 million."
The Air Force settled out of court for an undisclosed sum.[3
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Old 03-15-2011, 07:34 PM  
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ECOCIDE: A Strategy of War

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ecocide ? the murder of a nation?s ecosystem, both intentionally and as a predictable consequence of military actions ? which is the true name for war. When the New York Times and all other mainstream outlets see the need to write about the future ecocide ventures we are now preparing for, or the current ones we are always in the process of throttling down or up, I wish they?d stop using the romantic word ?war.? The modern manifestation of this exercise in mutual and collective insanity is so toxic and destructive, its effects cannot simply be absorbed by the human race, the environment in which our lives are possible or even our DNA.
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Old 03-15-2011, 07:48 PM  
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London's "Great Smog" 1952

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Causes of the Smog
The weather in Greater London had been unusually cold for several weeks leading up to the event. Because of the cold weather, households were burning more coal than usual to keep warm. The smoke from approximately one million coal-fired stoves, in addition to the emissions from local industry, was released into the atmosphere. Increases in smoke and sulfur emissions from the combustion of coal had been occurring since the Industrial Revolution and the British were familiar with these types of smog events. At times, the smoke and emissions were so heavy that residents referred to the events as ‘pea soupers’ because the fog was as dense as pea soup. However, while the area had experienced heavy smog in the past, no event had caused such problems as the weather event in December, 1952.

Formation of the Deadly Smog

Thousands of tons of black soot, tar particles, and sulfur dioxide had accumulated in the air from the heavy coal combustion. Estimates of PM10 concentrations during December, 1952, range between 3,000 and 14,000 μg/m? with the high range being approximately 50 times higher than normal levels at the time. PM10 is particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter. Conditions for Londoners today are much better with PM 10 concentrations around 30 μg/m?. Estimates also suggest that sulfur dioxide levels during December of 1952 were 7 times greater than normal at 700 parts per billion (ppb).

A light fog had lingered in the city throughout the day of December 5, although it was nothing unusual. However, as night came, light winds, cool air, and high humidity at ground-level were ideal conditions for the formation of thick, smoky fog, or smog. The smoke and fumes from the heavy coal combustion settled close to the ground and due to a temperature inversion, remained motionless and created dense smog.

A temperature inversion occurs when the air closer to the ground is cooler than the air above it. This cool air is denser than the warmer air above it and does not rise, as warmer air relative to that above it would, but remains trapped under the inversion, close to the ground. Temperature inversions are uncommon but occur more frequently on cold winter nights because the ground cools and water vapor precipitates on low-level dust particles, forming a mist. This caused the thick, smoke-polluted air to be trapped under the inversion. After nightfall, the fog thickened and reduced visibility to only a few meters. The following 114 hours in London experienced visibility less than 500 meters with 48 hours below 50 meters visibility. Heathrow Airport had visibility levels below 10 meters for nearly 48 hours following the morning of December 6. The city was brought to a practical standstill with road, rail, and air transport unable to operate because of the impaired visibility.

Temperature inversions are often reversed in the morning when radiation from the sun warms the ground below the mist. However, on the morning of December 6 the concentrations of smoke were still extremely high, and water vapor continued to condense around the black soot and tar particles. The sun’s radiation was unable to break through the dense smog. This caused the static layer of cooler, polluted air to remain trapped in the lower atmosphere. The fog lasted for 5 days, from December 5 through 10, until winds dispersed the dense air mass and transported the pollution through the Thames Estuary and into the North Sea.

During the week of December 5, the fog, dense with soot and tar particles, reacted with the atmospheric sulfur dioxide and formed a solute sulfuric acid. The heavy fog was inescapable – it was not only on the streets, but also entered into homes.

Causes of Death

The smog-related deaths were primarily attributed to pneumonia, bronchitis, tuberculosis, and heart failure. Many with preexisting conditions, including asthma, died of respiratory distress. Many others died of cardiac distress and asphyxiation. Non-fatal health effects from the smog included short-term chest pains, lung inflammation and diminished breathing ability, damaged respiratory cells, permanent lung damage, and increased incidence of asthma attacks. It is also thought that the smog could have increased the population’s risk of cancer.

The implications of the fog were not immediately clear. It was not until the deaths peaked on the 8th and 9th of December at 900 per day that the people knew something was wrong. During the smog and for two weeks following, approximately 4,000 people were killed. Some reports indicate that death rates remained above-normal for the entire winter and it is now thought that approximately 12,000 deaths can be tied to the great smog in the winter of 1952. The death toll could be thousands higher if it were known how many died from complications of smog-related illnesses in the following months and years.

At the time, officials reported that the smog had caused the deaths of mainly the old and those already suffering from chronic cardiovascular and respiratory illness. It was later determined that only two-thirds of the original 4,000 dead were over 65 years of age. Deaths in the middle-age range of 45 to 64 years experienced death rates three times greater than normal during the event. Infants were also highly-susceptible to the pollution-laden smog and infant mortality doubled during the week of December 5, 1952.

Aftermath

The smog-related deaths spurred the British government to take action and clean up the nation’s air. Society was becoming aware of the connection between fuel combustion, atmospheric pollution, and damages to public health. The 1956 Clean Air Act gave local governments the authority to provide funds to households to convert their coal-fired heaters for use of cleaner sources of energy such as gas, oil, smokeless coal, or electricity. The 1968 Clean Air Act was aimed at industry and introduced the use of taller chimneys which allowed the pollution from coal combustion to be released higher into the atmosphere. While this may have alleviated the immediate pollution impacts of coal combustion, we are now aware that taller chimney stacks have led to long-range transport of sulfur dioxide, or transboundary pollution. Transboundary pollution has been discovered as the cause of acid rain in regions without significant local emissions of sulfur dioxide.
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Great Smog
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Nelson's Column during the Great Smog of 1952
The Great Smog of '52 or Big Smoke[1] was a severe air pollution event that affected London, England, during December 1952. A period of cold weather, combined with an anticyclone and windless conditions, collected airborne pollutants mostly from the use of coal to form a thick layer of smog over the city. It endured from Friday 5 to Tuesday, 9 December 1952, and then dispersed quickly after a change of weather.
Although it caused major disruption due to the effect on visibility, and even penetrated indoor areas, it was not thought to be a significant event at the time, with London having experienced many smog events during the past, so called "pea soupers". During the succeeding weeks however, medical reports estimated that 4,000 had died prematurely and 100,000 more were made ill because of the smog's effects on the human respiratory tract. More recent research suggests that the number of fatalities was considerably greater at about 12,000.[2]
It is considered the worst air pollution event of the history of the United Kingdom,[3] and the most significant in terms of its effect on environmental research, government regulation, and public awareness of the relationship between air quality and health.[2] It caused several changes of practice and regulations, including the Clean Air Act 1956.
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Old 03-15-2011, 08:09 PM  
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Love Canal

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This neighborhood in Niagra Falls became a dumping ground for toxic waste in the 1920's when William T. Love abandoned his attempt to build a canal. In the 1940's, Hooker Chemical began dumping industrial waste in the canal and covering it with dirt. The waste was exposed in the 1950's when the local school board bought the land for $1 and two years later construction on the dumping site began to expose the toxic waste to local residents who suffered from serious health problems including asthma, miscarriages and mental retardation, as a result of the toxins. It was these problems that brought Love Canal into national headlines. A survey found that 56 percent of the children born in that area from 1974-1978 had birth defects.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Love Canal
Superfund site
Geography
City Niagara Falls
County Niagara County
State New York



Superfund sites
Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, which became the subject of national and international attention, controversy, and eventual environmental notoriety following the discovery of 21,000 tons of toxic waste that had been buried beneath the neighborhood by Hooker Chemical. Love Canal officially covers 36 square blocks in the far southeastern corner of the city, along 99th Street and Read Avenue. Two bodies of water define the northern and southern boundaries of the neighborhood: Bergholtz Creek to the north and the Niagara River one-quarter mile (400 m) to the south. In this area, Grand Island is situated on the south shore of the Niagara River. It is located in the white collar LaSalle section of the city of Niagara Falls.
Hooker Chemical sold this site to the Niagara Falls School Board with a deed explicitly detailing the danger contained within the site[citation needed], and including a liability limitation clause about the contamination. The construction efforts of housing development, combined with particularly heavy rainstorms, released the chemical waste, leading to a public health emergency and an urban planning scandal. Hooker Chemical was found to be negligent in their disposal of waste, though not reckless in the sale of the land, in what became a test case for liability clauses. The dumpsite was discovered and investigated by the local newspaper, the Niagara Falls Gazette, from 1976 through the evacuation in 1978. Potential health problems were first raised by reporter Michael H. Brown in July 1978.
Ten years after the incident, New York State Health Department Commissioner David Axelrod (not to be confused with the presidential adviser) stated that Love Canal would long be remembered as a "national symbol of a failure to exercise a sense of concern for future generations."[1] The Love Canal incident was especially significant as a situation where the inhabitants "overflowed into the wastes instead of the other way around." [2]
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Old 03-15-2011, 08:15 PM  
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Minamata Bay toxic poisoning

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From 1932-1968, Chisso Corporation, a petrochemical plant, dumped 27 tons of a poisonous toxic mercury compound into Japan's Minimata Bay, causing symptoms such as tremors, brain damage and vision problems in nearby residents. Other, long-term repercussions include death, insanity, birth defects and deformities.
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Minamata disease
Classification and external resources

The crippled hand of a Minamata disease victim
ICD-10 T56.1
ICD-9 985.0
MedlinePlus 001651
Minamata disease (水俣病 Minamata-byō?), sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease (チッソ水俣病 Chisso-Minamata-byō?), is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. Symptoms include ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, narrowing of the field of vision and damage to hearing and speech. In extreme cases, insanity, paralysis, coma and death follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. A congenital form of the disease can also affect fetuses in the womb.
Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata city in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan in 1956. It was caused by the release of methylmercury in the industrial wastewater from the Chisso Corporation's chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968. This highly toxic chemical bioaccumulated in shellfish and fish in Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea, which when eaten by the local populace resulted in mercury poisoning. While cat, dog, pig, and human deaths continued over more than 30 years, the government and company did little to prevent the pollution.
As of March 2001, 2,265 victims had been officially recognised (1,784 of whom had died)[1] and over 10,000 had received financial compensation from Chisso.[2] By 2004, Chisso Corporation had paid $86 million in compensation, and in the same year was ordered to clean up its contamination.[3] On March 29, 2010, a settlement was reached to compensate as-yet uncertified victims.[4]
A second outbreak of Minamata disease occurred in Niigata Prefecture in 1965. Both the original Minamata disease and Niigata Minamata disease are considered two of the Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan.
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